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Chapter 5 Gain Scheduling and Adaptation. Afterburning is often designed to give a significant thrust boost for take off, transonic acceleration and combat maneuvers, but is very fuel intensive. Consequently, afterburning can be used only for short portions of a mission. Unlike the main combustor, where the downstream turbine blades must not be damaged by high temperatures, an afterburner can operate at the ideal maximum stoichiometric temperature i.

At a fixed total applied fuel: However, a high specific thrust turbofan will, by definition, have a higher nozzle pressure ratio, resulting in a higher afterburning net thrust and, therefore, a lower afterburning specific fuel consumption SFC. However, high specific thrust engines have a high dry SFC. The situation is reversed for a medium specific thrust afterburning turbofan: The former engine is suitable for a combat aircraft which must remain in afterburning combat for a fairly long period, but has to fight only fairly close to the airfield e.

However, the pilot can afford to stay in afterburning only for a short period, before aircraft fuel reserves become dangerously low. To boost fuel economy and reduce noise, almost all of today's jet airliners and most military transport aircraft e. Modern combat aircraft tend to use low-bypass ratio turbofans, and some military transport aircraft use turboprops. Low specific thrust is achieved by replacing the multi-stage fan with a single-stage unit. Unlike some military engines, modern civil turbofans lack stationary inlet guide vanes in front of the fan rotor.

The fan is scaled to achieve the desired net thrust. The core or gas generator of the engine must generate enough power to drive the fan at its design flow and pressure ratio. Reducing the core mass flow tends to increase the load on the LP turbine, so this unit may require additional stages to reduce the average stage loading and to maintain LP turbine efficiency. Reducing core flow also increases bypass ratio. Bypass ratios greater than 5: Further improvements in core thermal efficiency can be achieved by raising the overall pressure ratio of the core.

Improved blade aerodynamics reduces the number of extra compressor stages required.

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With multiple compressors i. The lower the specific thrust of a turbofan, the lower the mean jet outlet velocity, which in turn translates into a high thrust lapse rate i.

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See technical discussion below, item 2. Consequently, an engine sized to propel an aircraft at high subsonic flight speed e. Low specific thrust engines tend to have a high bypass ratio, but this is also a function of the temperature of the turbine system. The turbofans on twin engined airliners are further more powerful to cope with losing one engine during take-off, which reduces the aircraft's net thrust by half. Modern twin engined airliners normally climb very steeply immediately after take-off.

If one engine is lost, the climb-out is much shallower, but sufficient to clear obstacles in the flightpath. The Soviet Union's engine technology was less advanced than the West's and its first wide-body aircraft, the Ilyushin Il , was powered by low-bypass engines. The Yakovlev Yak , a medium-range, rear-engined aircraft seating up to passengers introduced in was the first Soviet aircraft to use high-bypass engines.

Turbofan engines come in a variety of engine configurations. For a given engine cycle i. Off-design performance and stability is, however, affected by engine configuration.

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  6. As the design overall pressure ratio of an engine cycle increases, it becomes more difficult to operate at low rpm, without encountering an instability known as compressor surge. This occurs when some of the compressor aerofoils stall like the wings of an aircraft causing a violent change in the direction of the airflow. However, compressor stall can be avoided, at low rpm, by progressively:. Most modern western civil turbofans employ a relatively high-pressure-ratio high-pressure HP compressor, with many rows of variable stators to control surge margin at low rpm.

    As the HP compressor has a modest pressure ratio its speed can be reduced surge-free, without employing variable geometry. However, because a shallow IP compressor working line is inevitable, the IPC has one stage of variable geometry on all variants except the , which has none.

    Although far from common, the single-shaft turbofan is probably the simplest configuration, comprising a fan and high-pressure compressor driven by a single turbine unit, all on the same shaft. Despite the simplicity of the turbomachinery configuration, the M53 requires a variable area mixer to facilitate part-throttle operation. Hot gas from the turbojet turbine exhaust expanded through the LP turbine, the fan blades being a radial extension of the turbine blades. One of the problems with the aft fan configuration is hot gas leakage from the LP turbine to the fan. Many turbofans have the basic two-spool configuration where both the fan and LP turbine i.

    The Low Pressure spool runs at a lower radial velocity. The High Pressure spool turns more quickly and its compressor further compresses part of the air for combustion. At the smaller thrust sizes, instead of all-axial blading, the HP compressor configuration may be axial-centrifugal e. Higher overall pressure ratios can be achieved by either raising the HP compressor pressure ratio or adding an intermediate-pressure IP compressor between the fan and HP compressor, to supercharge or boost the latter unit helping to raise the overall pressure ratio of the engine cycle to the very high levels employed today i.

    All of the large American turbofans e. The high bypass ratios i. Rolls-Royce chose a three-spool configuration for their large civil turbofans i. The first three-spool engine was the earlier Rolls-Royce RB. As bypass ratio increases, the mean radius ratio of the fan and low-pressure turbine LPT increases.

    Advanced Control of Turbofan Engines

    Consequently, if the fan is to rotate at its optimum blade speed the LPT blading will spin slowly, so additional LPT stages will be required, to extract sufficient energy to drive the fan. Introducing a planetary reduction gearbox , with a suitable gear ratio, between the LP shaft and the fan enables both the fan and LP turbine to operate at their optimum speeds. Most of the configurations discussed above are used in civilian turbofans, while modern military turbofans e. Most civil turbofans use a high-efficiency, 2-stage HP turbine to drive the HP compressor.

    The CFM56 uses an alternative approach: While this approach is probably less efficient, there are savings on cooling air, weight and cost. Because the HP compressor pressure ratio is modest, modern military turbofans tend to use a single-stage HP turbine. Modern civil turbofans have multi-stage LP turbines e. The number of stages required depends on the engine cycle bypass ratio and how much supercharging i.

    A geared fan may reduce the number of required LPT stages in some applications. Consider a mixed turbofan with a fixed bypass ratio and airflow. Increasing the overall pressure ratio of the compression system raises the combustor entry temperature. Therefore, at a fixed fuel flow there is an increase in HP turbine rotor inlet temperature. Although the higher temperature rise across the compression system implies a larger temperature drop over the turbine system, the mixed nozzle temperature is unaffected, because the same amount of heat is being added to the system.

    There is, however, a rise in nozzle pressure, because overall pressure ratio increases faster than the turbine expansion ratio, causing an increase in the hot mixer entry pressure.

    Advanced control of turbofan engines (Book, ) []

    A similar trend occurs with unmixed turbofans. So turbofans can be made more fuel efficient by raising overall pressure ratio and turbine rotor inlet temperature in unison. Increasing the latter may require better compressor materials. If the latter is held constant, the increase in HP compressor delivery temperature from raising overall pressure ratio implies an increase in HP mechanical speed.

    However, stressing considerations might limit this parameter, implying, despite an increase in overall pressure ratio, a reduction in HP compressor pressure ratio. However, this assumes that cycle improvements are obtained, while retaining the datum HP compressor exit flow function non-dimensional flow. In practice, changes to the non-dimensional speed of the HP compressor and cooling bleed extraction would probably make this assumption invalid, making some adjustment to HP turbine throat area unavoidable.

    This means the HP turbine nozzle guide vanes would have to be different from the original. In all probability, the downstream LP turbine nozzle guide vanes would have to be changed anyway. Thrust growth is obtained by increasing core power. There are two basic routes available:. Both routes require an increase in the combustor fuel flow and, therefore, the heat energy added to the core stream.

    The cold route can be obtained by one of the following:. Alternatively, the core size can be increased, to raise core airflow, without changing overall pressure ratio. This route is expensive, since a new upflowed turbine system and possibly a larger IP compressor is also required.